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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Yes. The government hasn’t won a vertical merger case in decades. According to the Department of Justice’s own review guidelines, “vertical mergers” between content owners like Time Warner and distributors like AT&T are much less worrisome than horizontal ones. Meanwhile, the Fang companies — Facebook, Amazon, Netflix and Google — now dominate the digital entertainment landscape, which makes the government’s argument that the merger of two old-media firms would fundamentally alter competition even harder to make.

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I'm only a child yet I know we are all part of a family, five billion strong, in fact, 30 million species strong and we all share the same air, water and soil -- borders and governments will never change that. 我只是一个小孩,但我知道我们都是一个大家庭的成员,超过60亿人的大家庭,以及超过三千万物种的大家庭,政府和国界永远都无法改变这个事实。
难怪各银行开始变得有创造力。
到达洛杉矶后在一段虐恋中遭受了厌食症。

The number of Web users grew by 42.99 million in 2016, or 6.2 percent from the previous year, accounting for 53.2 percent of China's total population, the report said.
a不,非,mnes记忆-不记仇-赦免
The memes included jokes about pedophilia, child abuse, sexual assault, and the Holocaust.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

京津冀轨道“一小时交通圈”初步成形

然而,国家也很警惕网络金融的快速发展,该领域基本不受监管,发生系统性危机的风险可能会很高。据摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)和中国研究机构“网贷之家”的调查显示,自2007年以来,中国有370家P2P贷款平台倒闭,其中270家是在过去的一年中倒闭的。
先锋(Vanguard)的亚洲投资组合审查主管Yan Pu怀疑,亚洲的产品结构可能阻碍了ETF的发展。例如,亚洲ETF公司提供大量的股票ETF产品,但很少有固定收益产品。她指出,在美国,固定收益ETF增长迅速。
新加坡樟宜国际机场已经连续五年在每年一度的Skytrax世界机场大奖评选中获得世界最佳机场。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

郑中基和蔡卓妍:手原来是离婚
Bingo! In fewer than 20 words it combined five previous years’ winners, only to say nothing at all. With a heavy heart, I award eBay my overall Golden Flannel Award for 2016.
On Monday night, Ankara confirmed that the Dutch ambassador would not be welcome to return to Turkey.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Then in 2011, her mother Melissa was signed up to appeared as part of the Lifetime reality series Dance Moms.
  • 统计局解读11月份房价数据:房价涨幅略有扩大
  • 这些排行榜是基于某个特定学科的研究能力而做出评价,与综合榜单评价方式不同。
  • 月度成交量年内首破万套 北京二手房暖冬来了?
  • 东方家园资金链断裂 橱柜企业需防范未然
  • 沙特阿美(Saudi Aramco)会在外国公开上市吗?
    与此同时,前第五届和声明星 Camila Cabello证明了她的独唱生涯正在起飞,因为她的首张单曲《Havana》获得了最佳流行音乐奖。她的胜利意味着Taylor Swift失去了另一个奖项,尽管这对于歌手来说只是众多收获中的一个,但是近期她因为一年的沉寂过后又重新成为焦点。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 增加抚养“宝宝”个税专项抵扣 切中现实痛点, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

多地密集通报违法违规开发商和中介 楼市调控仍在加码

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

杭州摇号细则出台后楼市生变 购房者放弃二手房

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • For: It picked up the audience award at the Toronto International Film Festival, often a key awards indicator.
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  • Iese商学院的优势之一是其学风严谨。这所位于巴塞罗那的商学院在定制课程的所有指标上一贯表现优异。该校在15项指标中的11项上都跻身前五之列,并在国际客户和师资多样性两项指标上排名第一。
    After exhausting all his options, the practical kid decided to tend to his academic responsibilities, not knowing how long it would take before someone finds him.
    To Craig Bennett, Abigail Baird, Michael Miller, and George Wolford for demonstrating that brain researchers, using a combination of complicated equipment and simple statistics, can find meaningful brain activity anywhere, even in a dead fish.
    2. 《头脑特工队》,导演:彼得·道格特(Pete Docter)。
    "That of course is in keeping with all of the developments that we have seen in China in recent years, including the current enormous emphasis on innovation as a major component in the transition of the Chinese economy from 'Made in China' to 'Created in China'," he said.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 家居建材商以联盟捆绑打响“金九”争夺战
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 多重利好添彩中国经济增速超预期

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

但是,贝克?麦坚时律所并购业务主席迈克尔?德佛朗哥(Michael DeFranco)对中国企业在发达经济体投资表示赞赏。
The Bulls get the Kings' pick if it falls outside the top 10, so it's better for the Kings to be a bottom-10 team than to just miss the playoffs in terms of team-building.
The film pulls heavily from the life of Arthur Bremer, who shot presidential candidate and segregationist George Wallace in 1972. Similarly to his film counterpart, Bremer shot Wallace shortly after being rebuffed by a young girl. Overall, though, his life was much less exciting than that of De Niro's character, with the biggest commonality between the two being that neither actually succeeds in killing a politician.
菲律宾警察总长表示,新总统罗德里戈?杜特尔特(Rodrigo Duterte)上台后,不断升级的禁毒战争已造成近1800人死亡。
Between 1991 and 2010, the cancer mortality rate fell by a whopping 20%, which is more than 10% a decade. One day we will say goodbye to cancer for good.
She created a whole world around the device -- one populated by humans, a whale in a top hat and dragons.
美国总统奥巴马以每年40万美元的收入高居榜首,同时还拥有5万美元的免税账目。国会最近一次给美国总统加薪是在2001年。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • n. [宗
  • 广东建行即将推出“存房贷”住房租赁权出售业务
  • 2.Hold themselves and others accountable
    The swap is due largely to the major security breach at software company Adobe in October which affected tens of millions of users.
  • 专家解析10月房价变化:楼市调控成效正在显现
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Zhang Jingxiu, executive director of Beijing-based employment consultancy Newjincin Research Institute, said he didn't monitor the significant decrease of students' willingness to start businesses, but he does admit the desire to found startups among students on campus is low.
    SplashData has revealed its list of the worst passwords of 2017, using data from more than 5 million passwords leaked this year – and, once again, ‘123456’ and ‘password’ top the list.
  • 201110/156061.shtml
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  • “我想,在21世纪,人们绝对会质疑这件事。”
    em进入,brace胳膊-拥抱
  • 随着PC端的消亡,再用病毒攻击他们就没那么有趣了。我认为恶意软件、蠕虫病毒和其他病毒都会很快入侵平板和手机。结果就是,我们要更卖力地保护自己的设备。
    10.电脑系统分析师
    In the past two decades, several campus poisoning incidents have sparked mass debates and concerns about students' psychological development and support.
  • 在过去的二十年里,几起校园中毒事件引发了群众对学生心理发展及帮助的争论和关注。
    Honda hopes NSX will burnish its reputational halo for technical expertise. The automaker also wants NSX to help boost Acura’s brand image as a maker of premium cars and trucks. Last year, Honda’s U.S. sales rose 1% against a market that increased by 5.9% – resulting a loss of market share, most importantly, lost ground against its two main rivals, Toyota and Nissan.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 全国专项整治行动查出11.4万个违建“大棚房” shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

国务院扶贫办:脱贫攻坚要防止“急躁症”“拖延症”

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

中共中央、国务院关于坚持农业农村优先发展做好“三农”工作的若干意见

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

苏宁、靓家居结盟联袂布局O2O家居生态圈

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

限购加码楼市调控鼓点渐强

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • n. 匙,调羹,匙状物
  • separate
  • 新个人所得税法征管办法将全面实施

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • n. 保护,防卫
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 年过40方当妈的女星们
    The North has already warned that Park will "pay for his crimes in blood" if copies of the film make it across the border.
    The 2016 ranking features a record 90 programmes, up from 70 in 2014.
  • 另一条推文发表于美国总统就职日,奥巴马称:“能够为你们服务是我毕生的荣幸,你们使我成为了更好的领袖和更好的人。”

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Believe it or not, this prize went to the US Government General Accountability Office (GAO) for issuing a report that recommended a report about another report of reports recommending reports... or something like that.
  • 广东瓷砖价格全线下调 上半年全抛釉最高降价30%
  • But because I can’t help but hope that with the end of “Mad Men” comes the end of a period in fashion that has seen designers become trapped in the past to an almost stifling degree. At least the past as it looked in the 1960s (which in the beginning, let us not forget, looked a lot like the late 1950s) and early ’70s.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 传北京存量商办改公租房 北京住建委:无此政策
  • Household substance abuse
  • 一线城市30-34岁人群为租房主力军 40%的租客每年都在换租
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

深圳标准六大制度建立 家具好坏看“深圳标准”

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 8月家居建材销售额环比上涨 积极因素叠加
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 海口:新建商品房买卖合同严禁滞后网签
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

AR could be the bigger opportunity after Apple’s Tim Cook gave the technology his backing — it was included in Apple’s latest operating system and its iPhone X device.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Followers are also getting younger and better educated, with 77.8 percent in the 17-to-33 age group and 75 percent with a higher education.
Tom Petty
Now, Curry and the Golden State Warriors are right road of adding another accomplishment.
上榜理由:被低估的欧洲瑰宝
BROADCHURCH (BBC America, March 4) David Tennant returns in the second season of this evocative British mystery, playing Detective Alec Hardy again (after a season as Detective Emmett Carver in the American remake, “Gracepoint”). With the British premiere scheduled for Monday, the producers have begun to talk a little about the show’s top-secret Season 2 story line, and fans may not like what they hear: Chris Chibnall, the creator and writer, told a British magazine, “It’s not another crime case.” Olivia Colman returns as Detective Ellie Miller, while Charlotte Rampling and Marianne Jean-Baptiste join the cast.
Bobbi's dad Anton, 28, admits that he had his concerns at first, but is now comfortable with Bobbi's routine.
Most of those surveyed for the report mentioned that positive impacts of social media include socializing with acquaintances and taking in more information.
二月的一天,苹果(Apple)的年度股东大会进行了一个多小时,蒂姆?库克(Tim Cook)已经耐心地回答了苹果进军电视市场的计划和他如何看待谷歌眼镜(Google Glass)等各类问题。但当一位参会听众就苹果各环保项目(比如其太阳能数据中心)的盈利能力向这位首席执行官发难的时候,库克发怒了。
Scientists have long investigated stem cells' potential for growing hearts, and they reached a major milestone this year when they created heart tissue than can beat on its own.
该剧因为爱情戏份太多,对周莹奋斗的故事描写太少而受到批评,其豆瓣评分为7.2分。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

中国各地城镇化潜力不一:河南、湖南位居前两位

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • How do you feel about workingwith Ei Aoki again in Aldnoah?
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • In an industry enthralled to rehashed stories that strike a familiar chord with audiences, give Pixar credit for often trying something new and pushing their viewers into uncharted territories. Coco, directed by Toy Story 3’s Lee Unkrich, has a visual look based around Mexico’s Dia de los Muertos (Day of the Dead). It’s about a young boy named Miguel who idolises legendary guitar player Ernesto de la Cruz and wants to learn how to play as well as he could. So he goes on a transformative odyssey of self-discovery into the realm of the dead to find his long-deceased idol and learn some lessons about the nature of creativity and originality. Whether it can reach the heights of Pixar’s 2015 masterpiece Inside Out remains to be seen, but Coco should surely be a feast for the eyes. Released November 15 in France, November 22 in the US, Croatia and the Philippines, and November 30 in Israel. (Credit: Disney-Pixar)
  • 9月全国期货市场交易规模“缩水” 钢铁建材和化工板块成交下滑明显
  • Thus it's rather a shock when you first encounter Nick D'Aloisio striding into London's Bar Boulud restaurant, firmly shaking hands and proceeding to outline his entrepreneurial vision. To imagine him in person, picture a Silicon Valley CEO blessed with an easy manner and 97th percentile media skills. Picture a guy who can confidently expound (while maintaining steady eye contact) on topics ranging from Noam Chomsky's theories to the science of neural networks to the immigrant mind-set to the Buddhist concept of jnana. And now picture this fellow trapped inside the gangly body of a British teen who might easily be mistaken for a member of the pop boy band One Direction-clad in a hipster T-shirt beneath a fitted blazer, hair swooping over his forehead, taking bites of a cheeseburger between bold pronouncements.
  • “三高”户型或将成广州市场新宠
  • Length of program: 22 months

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 个税起征点提至5000元有望10月实现
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • "The Chinese government, universities and investors have provided a friendly environment for young startups. However, the failure rate of fresh graduates founding startups is still too high due to the lack of experience, resources and networking," said Wang Yixin, a senior consultant at Zhaopin.
  • 该工作室称,他们已经采取了措施,因为这个男孩拒绝删除发布在youtube上的视频,而在这个视频中他向人们介绍了如何去使用这个软件。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

建材领域首部节能减排评价体系将出台

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